3 ; 1 ; in Month : January (2021) Article No : shfci-v3-1004
SS Visen, AS Visen and PKS Visen

Abstract
The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has hit the world very hard by affecting millions of people across countries hence posing a major health threat on a global scale. This novel virus is thought to enter and cause infection in its host through the attachment of its structural protein known as the S-glycoprotein to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). COVID-19 is presented with asymptomatic, mild, or severe pneumonia-like symptoms. During the infection, the cardiovascular system is affected by unknown pathophysiological processes. Among COVID-19 patients, cardiovascular disease (CVD) is resulting into cardiac injury, acute coronary syndrome (ACS), myocardial infarction (MI), arrhythmic infestation and myocarditis. The results of the meta-analysis suggest that CVD and its risk factors are closely related to fatal outcomes in COVID-19 for patients across all ages. Hence, from a cardiovascular standpoint, there are concerns as to whether patients with underlying cardiovascular conditions are at a higher risk of an aggravated COVID-19 infection. Also, as to whether COVID-19 infections induce cardiomyopathies that were not in existence prior to the infection. Nonetheless, much needs to be discovered about the cardiac involvement of this novel coronavirus (nCoV) infection and its relationship with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). For acute CVD events, the use of antiplatelet agents, β-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARBs) and statins are recommended per practice guidelines. Whether the medications which patients used for cardiovascular disease will interfere with the treatment or the outcome of COVID-19, is still unknown. With the invent of vaccines and as new clinical evidences emerging, the diagnosis and treatment may change. The purpose of this concise review is to discuss CVD and related potential disorders in patients with COVID-19 which involves SARS-CoV-2 infection, pathophysiology, role of ACE2 in cardiac injury, possible mechanism of cardiac complications and clinical manifestations.

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